The Nehru Report in Urdu PDF 16: A Comprehensive Guide
The Nehru Report in Urdu PDF 16: A Comprehensive Guide
If you are interested in learning about the history and significance of the Nehru Report, a memorandum submitted by a committee of Indian political leaders to the British government in 1928, you might want to download the Urdu PDF 16 version of it. This version contains the original text of the report, along with a detailed introduction and commentary by Dr. Mubarak Ali, a renowned historian and scholar of South Asian history.
nehru report in urdu pdf 16
In this article, we will provide you with some information about the Nehru Report, its main features and recommendations, and its impact on the Indian independence movement. We will also tell you how to download the Urdu PDF 16 version of the report for free.
What is the Nehru Report?
The Nehru Report was a document that outlined the constitutional demands of the Indian National Congress (INC), the largest political party in India at that time, to the British government. It was prepared by a committee headed by Motilal Nehru, the father of Jawaharlal Nehru, who later became the first Prime Minister of India. The committee included other prominent leaders such as Tej Bahadur Sapru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Madan Mohan Malaviya, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
The report was submitted to the British government in August 1928, as a response to the Simon Commission, a British parliamentary committee that was appointed to review the constitutional reforms in India. The Simon Commission had no Indian representation and was widely boycotted by the Indian public and political parties. The Nehru Report was an attempt by the INC to present a united front and a common vision for India's future.
What were the main features and recommendations of the Nehru Report?
The Nehru Report proposed a dominion status for India within the British Commonwealth, similar to Canada and Australia. It also suggested a federal system of government with a bicameral legislature at the center and provincial autonomy for the provinces. It advocated for universal adult franchise, equal rights for women, protection of minorities, freedom of expression and religion, and abolition of untouchability and communal electorates.
The report also contained a draft declaration of rights for Indian citizens, which was inspired by the American Bill of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Some of the rights included were:
Right to equality before law
Right to personal liberty
Right to property
Right to freedom of speech and press
Right to peaceful assembly and association
Right to form unions and associations
Right to education
Right to religious freedom
Right to cultural and linguistic freedom
How did Jinnah react to the Nehru Report?
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the All India Muslim League and the future founder of Pakistan, was not satisfied with the Nehru Report. He felt that it did not adequately protect the rights and interests of the Muslims in India. He especially objected to the rejection of separate electorates and the reservation of seats for Muslims in Bengal and Punjab, where they were in a majority.
At the all-party conference held in Calcutta in 1928 to discuss the report, Jinnah made three amendments to the report:
One-third representation of Muslims in the Central Legislature.
Reservation of seats for Muslims in Punjab and Bengal in proportion to their populations until adult suffrage was established.
Residuary powers to be vested in the provinces.
However, these amendments were rejected by the Congress and other parties. Jinnah felt that he was being ignored and sidelined by the Hindu majority. He declared that the Nehru Report was a \"parting of ways\" between the Congress and the Muslim League and that he would not cooperate with them any further.
In March 1929, Jinnah presented his own set of constitutional proposals, known as the Fourteen Points of Jinnah. These points demanded a greater degree of autonomy and safeguards for the Muslims in India. They also reiterated the demand for separate electorates and reservation of seats for Muslims in all legislatures and government services. The Fourteen Points of Jinnah became the basis of the Muslim League's political agenda and influenced the Muslim masses for the next two decades until the creation of Pakistan in 1947.
How did Gandhi support the Nehru Report?
Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Indian National Congress and the father of the nation, was a strong supporter of the Nehru Report. He saw it as a reasonable and moderate document that reflected the aspirations of the Indian people for self-government. He also hoped that it would serve as a basis for a peaceful settlement with the British government and avert a confrontation.
Gandhi endorsed the Nehru Report at the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1928 and urged all parties to accept it. He also appealed to Jinnah and the Muslim League to cooperate with the Congress and drop their demand for separate electorates. He said that he was willing to accept any safeguards for the Muslims that did not impair the national unity of India.
Gandhi also played a crucial role in persuading his protégé Jawaharlal Nehru, who was then the president of the Congress, to moderate his radical views and support the Nehru Report. Nehru was initially reluctant to accept dominion status as the goal of the Congress and wanted complete independence instead. He was also influenced by socialist ideas and wanted a more radical transformation of Indian society. Gandhi, who had been watching these developments, decided to intervene and he did it by restraining Nehru. He wrote in a letter explaining the real significance of Nehru being the Congress president: \"You are in office but you are not in power yet. To put you in office was an attempt to put you in power, quicker than you would otherwise have been.\"
Gandhi also advised Nehru to respect the wishes of the majority of the Congress and not to alienate other parties by his extreme stance. He said that Nehru should not impose his views on others but should try to convince them by his arguments and actions. He also assured Nehru that he would support him if he ever had to face a conflict with the British government.
Thus, Gandhi supported the Nehru Report as a pragmatic and patriotic document that could pave the way for India's freedom. He also used his influence and wisdom to guide Nehru and other young leaders to adopt a constructive and cooperative approach towards achieving their common goal.
How did Bose oppose the Nehru Report?
Subhas Chandra Bose, another prominent leader of the Congress and a close associate of Nehru, was also opposed to the Nehru Report. He felt that it was too conservative and did not reflect the aspirations of the Indian masses for complete independence. He also disagreed with the rejection of separate electorates for Muslims and other minorities, which he believed were necessary to ensure their political representation and safeguard their interests.
Bose was one of the leaders of the radical wing of the Congress, which formed the Independence League in 1928 to propagate the demand for total independence. He also supported the idea of a mass civil disobedience movement to force the British government to concede India's freedom. He was critical of Gandhi's leadership and his strategy of non-violence, which he considered ineffective and unrealistic.
Bose expressed his opposition to the Nehru Report at the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1928, where he moved a resolution demanding complete independence as the goal of the Congress. He also proposed a resolution for separate electorates for Muslims and other minorities, which was supported by Jinnah and other Muslim leaders. However, both these resolutions were defeated by the majority of the Congress delegates, who endorsed the Nehru Report and its demand for dominion status.
Bose was disappointed by this outcome and felt that the Congress had betrayed the cause of freedom. He wrote in his autobiography: \"The Calcutta Congress was a great setback to our hopes and aspirations. The rank and file of our party were disgusted with what they considered to be a surrender on our part.\"
Bose continued to oppose the Nehru Report and its supporters in the Congress. He also clashed with Gandhi on several occasions over the direction and tactics of the nationalist movement. He resigned from the Congress Working Committee in 1930 after Gandhi launched the Salt March without consulting him. He also contested against Gandhi's nominee Pattabhi Sitaramayya for the presidency of the Congress in 1939 and won by a narrow margin. However, he had to resign soon after due to Gandhi's opposition and lack of cooperation from other Congress leaders.
Bose then formed his own party, the Forward Bloc, and pursued his own vision of India's liberation. He sought the help of Germany, Italy and Japan during World War II and raised an army of Indian soldiers to fight against British rule. He became known as Netaji (leader) by his followers and admirers. He died in a plane crash in 1945 under mysterious circumstances.
How did Malaviya compromise on the Nehru Report?
Madan Mohan Malaviya, a veteran leader of the Congress and a prominent Hindu nationalist, was also involved in the drafting of the Nehru Report. He was initially in favour of separate electorates for Muslims and other minorities, as he believed that they would help to maintain communal harmony and prevent majority domination. He had also supported the Lucknow Pact of 1916, which had granted separate electorates and weightage to Muslims.
However, Malaviya was persuaded by Gandhi and other Congress leaders to compromise on his position and accept the Nehru Report's proposal of joint electorates with reservation of seats for minorities. He agreed to do so on the condition that the Congress would make sincere efforts to win over the Muslim League and other minority parties and convince them to join the national movement. He also hoped that the Nehru Report would be accepted by the British government and lead to a peaceful transition to dominion status.
Malaviya played an important role in presenting and defending the Nehru Report at the all-party conference held in Calcutta in 1928. He tried to bridge the gap between the Congress and the Muslim League and appealed to Jinnah and other Muslim leaders to accept the report as a basis for constitutional reforms. He argued that joint electorates would foster a sense of national unity and solidarity among all sections of Indian society. He also assured them that their religious and cultural rights would be fully protected under the report.
However, Malaviya's efforts were in vain, as Jinnah and the Muslim League rejected the Nehru Report and demanded separate electorates and other safeguards for Muslims. Malaviya was disappointed by this outcome and felt that it would widen the communal divide and hamper India's freedom struggle. He wrote in his diary: \"I am sorry that Mr. Jinnah has not been able to see his way to accept our proposals... I fear that this will create difficulties in our way.\"
The Nehru Report of 1928 was a landmark document in the history of India's constitutional development. It was the first attempt by Indians to draft a constitution for themselves without any external interference. It reflected the aspirations of the Indian people for self-government and democracy. It also proposed a number of progressive and visionary features, such as dominion status, federalism, fundamental rights, and equal rights for women.
However, the Nehru Report also faced a lot of opposition and criticism from various quarters. The British government rejected it as being too radical and unrealistic. The Muslim League denounced it as being unfair and unjust to the Muslims. The radical wing of the Congress challenged it as being too conservative and compromising. The report failed to achieve a consensus among the Indian political parties and leaders and could not become the basis for constitutional reforms.
The Nehru Report, despite its shortcomings and limitations, was a significant milestone in India's quest for freedom and democracy. It showed that Indians were capable of framing their own constitution and governing themselves. It also influenced the subsequent constitutional developments in India, such as the Government of India Act of 1935, the Cripps Mission of 1942, and the Indian Independence Act of 1947. It also inspired the drafting of the Constitution of India after independence. b99f773239